Agriculture-Urban Interface Issues and Potential Research Projects… regionally focused small discussion groups (13Aug)

Pacific: (see blog titled “Pacific Coast Discussion Group – Research project ideas” for more specifics)

Location and Network – California Central Valley near Fresno as place to set up 3 or 4 sites to monitor CHO, NOx, etc. with measurements tailored to various scopes/objectives

Research scope – Nitrogen budget, radical precursors transport; metal-containing particles as precursors; look at additional transport pathways

South US:

Location and Network – No large scale services; many large agricultural areas around Dallas-Ft. Worth (DFW); natural gas drilling operations; high public interest level;

Research scope – study NOx, PM, HONO; DFW region is really large, presenting challenges in sampling design

Rationale – Data gaps are large, but have a big opportunity to look at ag-urban interaction impacts; funding possibilities from USDA/NSF/academic institutions

Rough budget estimate of $US 3 Million

Central America: (Mexico, Costa Rica, El Salvador)

Location and Network – big city to natural areas transport; specific location identification difficult but pick big cities in each country;

Research scope – main contaminants of interest CHO, HONO, O3, VOCs, impacts on agriculture and forests and from these areas to the cities, to estimate the loss of production due to oxidative stress caused by ozone exposure.

Methodology – active and passive samplers up- and down- wind, remote sensing, modeling

Fundings – government funding and private agricultural sector funds. 

So. America: (see blog titled “So. America Discussion Group – Research project ideas” for more specifics)

Location, Network, and Scope – characterize the radical sources and extent of interaction from each nation (Santiago de Chile and Buenos Aires for transport between Uruguay and Argentina); if looking in the south of Chile and Argentina potentially could have more impact potential due to lower mountains.

Funding – government funding would be secured based on avoiding agricultural impacts from urban (motivation); use passive samplers to keep cost down; also satellite imagery and chemical measurement; augment with O3, NO2, SO2 using TedlarÒ bag grab samples.  Engage global organizations, e.g. UN-FAO.

Eastern US:

Location and Network – areas of uncertainty for HONO and formaldehyde precursor emissions from agricultural sources within the Eastern US ozone transport zone; sources are a livestock feedlot in North Carolina and an intensive plant-based agricultural production area in New Jersey;  

Research scope – try to detect and characterize unknown sources which are leading to additional HONO and formaldehyde formation.  Use emission ratio comparisons and smog chamber data to model. Automate instrumentation – assumed budget not a limiting factor; minimum month long sampling at fine temporal scale and up to a year, if budget allows.  Sophisticated analytical chemistry will be utilized for modeling and tracking the transport of emissions.  Use cryotrap GC-MS and laser fluorescence techniques to measure and characterize ozone formation.

Group Members: Lily, Brian, Penny, Evan, and Lauren

Brazil and Argentina:

Location and Network – look at macro convection circulation patterns in the Amazon region – identify where the mixing/deposition occurs; measure in specific regions in Brazil to the northeast region of Argentina; determine transboundary pollution from agricultural areas in Brazil to the northeast region of Argentina passing through agricultural productive areas; measurements in the ground level on highly populated areas such as Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region. This source and deposition of pollutant from biomass burning may have a negative effect on agriculture activity in both countries.

Research Scope – would be beneficial to understand potential impacts on grains and fruitful crops areas; impacts on both, natural and agricultural area; analyze the additive effect on Argentinian region where replacement of native forest for soybean production also occurs; PMs, agrochemicals, hydrocarbons are generated from soybean cultures that also involves biomass burning and deforestation; use measurements to support numerical modeling, and later focus where the measurements are going to be collected.  Identify seasonal patterns.

Cost and funding – Budget is unknown, however, try to be most cost effective with samplers and analysis; Motivation is that biomass burning has the potential to affect grains and fruitful crops, and urban air quality.  May also interact with agricultural growing practices, e.g. fertilization.

 

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One Response to “Agriculture-Urban Interface Issues and Potential Research Projects… regionally focused small discussion groups (13Aug)”

  1. silver account Says:

    A thick veil of smoke covered much of South America on September 14, 2004, as intense fires continued to burn in western Brazil, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Such widespread fires are not natural in the humid, tropical environment, and these were probably started to clear land for agriculture. As this image demonstrates, local agricultural fires can have a long reach. The smoke inhibits cloud formation and rainfall, which can impact a large area. In this case, the smoke is drifting northwest along the east side of the Andes Mountains, traveling well over a thousand kilometers from its point of origin. To learn more about the effects of fires in the Amazon, please read ?From Forest to Field: How Fire is Transforming the Amazon.? [ http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/AmazonFire/ ] To learn more about the impact of smoke on clouds and the energy balance of the Amazon, please read ?Clouds are Cooler than Smoke.? [ http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Study/SmokeClouds/ ] This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS [ http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov ]) on both the Aqua [ http://aqua.nasa.gov/ ] and the Terra [ http://terra.nasa.gov/ ] satellites. The image is a mosaic of five separate granules (the data collected during a five minute period), and as such, shows a much larger area than a single MODIS scene. The large image provided above has a resolution of 500 meters per pixel. A closer view of the fires taken during a single Aqua [ http://aqua.nasa.gov/ ] overpass is available from the MODIS Rapid Response Team. See also Fires Near Xingu River [ http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/natural_hazards_v2.php3?img_id=12418 ] for more images of the biomass burning that has been ongoing in this region for more than two months. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data obtained from the MODIS Rapid Response team.

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